Movement In Living Organisms

hello students, during our last class session on biology, we were able to explained cell reactions to its environment where we talk about Taxis definition, Taxis in Protista, Chlamydomonas, Euglena Viridis and also in Amoeba, We also talked about Avoiding reaction by Paramecium.
During our last class session on biology, we were also able to explained tropism and also the response of stem to stimuli such as force of gravity, Light and likewise response of roots to water.
Today we will be talking about movement in living organisms, what is movement in living organisms? Protoplasmic Streaming Or Cyclosis, movement in Amoeba, movement of cilia and flagella and also growth movement. So let not waste time and start with definition of movement in living organisms as a characteristics of living things.

movement in living organisms

Movement In Living Organisms As Characteristics Of Living Things

Movement in living organisms is an activity which results in a change of shape, form or position of a living organisms. movement in living organisms is one of the characteristics of living things. There are several kinds of movement in living organisms, and methods of bringing about movement in living organisms, which I will explain in this class session. biology courses

Protoplasmic Streaming Or Cyclosis

In some living cells, such as the cells of the plant Elodea, or the prostist paramecium, it is possible to observe, under the microscope, cytoplasm flowing from one part of the cell to the other. This process is known as Protoplasmic Streaming or Cyclosis. Protoplasmic streaming is what helps circulate materials within a cell.
The circulation of a food vacuole in paramecium, through a definite path is thought to be brought about by protoplasmic streaming.

Actions That Results In Protoplasmic Streaming

Protoplasmic streaming is brought about by two actions, namely:

a} Cytoplasm can exist in a fairly liquid form, called Plasmasol, or in a fairly solid form, called Plasmagel - meaning that, Plasmasol is the liquid form of cytoplasm and Plasmagel is the solid form of cytoplasm. From the word "sol" and "gel"
The first action in protoplasmic streaming is that cytoplasm changes from plasmagel to plasmasol, progressively, from the anterior end to the posterior end of the stream.

b} The second Action in protoplasmic streaming is that the cytoplasm exerts pressure at the posterior end on the plasmasol, as it is formed from first stage above, causing the plasmasol to flow forward. At the anterior end of the streaming, plasmasol is again converted to plasmagel.

Let quickly talk about movement in Amoeba

Amoeboid Movement

Amoeboid movement, a.k.a movement in Amoeba.
The manner in which Amoeba moves is called Amoeboid movement.
This type of movement also occurs in white blood corpuscles of man

Amoeboid movement is related to protoplasmic streaming because it involves the change of state of the cytoplasm from gel to sol , and back again to the gel state.
During the process, at the point where a new pseudopodium is to be formed, the plasmagel softens. Plasmasol flows towards this point from the rest of the cytoplasm where plasmagel is being changed to plasmasol. This flow is maintained by pressure at the posterior end relative to where the pseudopodium is forming. As the plasmasol flows into the forming pseudopodium, the pseudopodium steadily elongates. Near the tips of the pseudopodium, the plasmasol fans out in all directions and changes to plasmagel. The plasmagel forms a tube in which there is a core of streaming plasmasol.

movement in Amoeba

Movement Of Cilia And Flagella

It has already been stated from the activities above that unicellular organisms move, often very quickly.
The movement you observe involved movements of the whole body. Unicellular organisms may have specialised organelles to help them move, such as Cilia or Flagella.
Cilia and Flagella are long thin structures which extend from the surfaces of many kinds of cells. They occur widely in living things. Flagella occur in such organisms as Euglena, Chlamydomonas and Volvox.
Cilia occur in ciliates including Paramecium and some invertebrates. Cells that line the respiratory tract of man have cilia. However, the cilia do not bring about movement of the cells{Please Do Note This}. But instead they lash in such a way that they cause the movement of particles such as dust and soot towards the back of the mouth, where they are removed by splitting out or swallowing. Spermatozoa in man and in some other animals move by means of flagella.

Similarity And Differences Between Cilia And Flagella

Cilia and Flagella are similar in structure. They differ only in length, the flagellum being longer than the cilium. The cilium or flagellum is made up of nine pairs of microtubules arranged in a circle. These surround two solitary microtubules in the centre of the cilium or flagellum. The basal body consists of microtubules arranged in nine triplets around the periphery and unlike the cilium or flagellum has no microtubules in the centre.

Movement Behavior Of Cilia And Flagella

Cilia and Flagella move in definite manners .
A cilia beats downwards from an upright position. Then the cilia returns in a relaxed condition to the upright position, then it beats again. The cilia in an organism do not beat all at the same time but instead they beat in an coordinated manner from one end of the body to the other. In doing so, the movement manner of the cilia continuously provide the force that moves the organism, such as in Paramecium, through the water.

Growth Movement

During our class session on growth in plants and animals, we were able to achieve and understand the meaning of growth in plants and animals, on how plants carry growth movement through responding to stimuli such as light, water, gravity and touch. We also explained regulation of growth by hormones.
These movements in living organisms called tropism do not result in movement from one place to another, but in bending or curvature of plant organs such as stem, root, etc. The bending bears a relationship with the direction from which the stimulus is received. I explained this during the class session on cell reactions to its environment.

We have come to the end of today's class session "movement in living organisms". Don't forget to ask any questions or observations through the comment box. RECOMMENDED BIOLOGY MATERIAL - Obtain this biology course, see you next class, thank you.
Our next topic on biology will be reproduction.

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